Науковий керівник: Василишина Наталія Дмитрівна
Чернівецький торговельно-економічний інститут
Київського національного торговельно-економічного
університету м. Чернівці
The Role of Education and Science in the Formation of
In the course of the 21st century we have witnessed the unprecedented demand for higher education and its broad diversification. Apart from that, we have also realized the crucial role of education and science in economic development and creation of the future, so that young generations would be obliged to master new skills, knowledge and, thus, generate new ideas.
Educational system is one of the major social institutions, which is harmoniously related to the fundamental bases of the social structure, its social, economic and political organization, its nature and predominant orientation of social life . That is why highly qualified graduates are to add up to the economically successful segment of the country’s population, which, in turn, will enrich domestic economy. On the other hand, our country experiences significant brain drain, i.e. employment of Ukrainian scientists and specialists abroad. Indeed, roughly 15, 000 Ukrainian experts are working in the Silicon Valley. The annual price of their output exceeds $2.5 billion. Specialists have estimated that Ukraine spent more than $12 billion on education of the emigrants, who left the country in 1990 – 2010. Nowadays, according to the statistics, the number of PhD and doctoral theses, defended every year, is four times more as compared to 1991. By the number of scientists, Ukraine is among first ten countries in the world. However, this quantity does not seem to be qualitative. Having analyzed the patenting, it is now clear that work effectiveness of one American scientist is the same as of 142 of Ukrainians, and a Swedish expert equals to 79 Ukrainians. The situation concerning international patents is even worse. Considering the effectiveness of labour, “three Finnish specialists substitute for one Ukrainian research institute” [2, pp.3-4]. Therefore, a great number of scientists results in poor labour effectiveness. We need to create stiff competition in the field of both education and science. The aphorism by Claude Adrien Helvétius “Competition gives birth to geniuses, while the desire for fame breeds talented people” proves that competition should exist both in business and on the way to it. Beyond the abovementioned problems, Forbes magazine gave its own opinion of the negative phenomena taking place in the formation of educational system. They are as follows:
- abundance of specialists with higher education contrasted to lack of technical personnel and average technical staff;
- unwillingness of experts to work in their professional field of activity (this phenomenon demonstrates that our society has already gone further the confines of the industrial system and we do not accept quality criteria for professional education popular in the 20th century);
- universal military obligation, which has become an important source of artificial demand for higher education (if it were not for avoiding military obligation, Bill Gates would have had to graduate university, do a useless postgraduate research, and become a good engineer, but wouldn’t have established Microsoft Corporation);
- absence of permanent qualification change (dynamism of modern economy requires permanent qualification change, since new areas of human activity and professions emerge. Otherwise, a man is separated from scientific and technical progress, and he is no longer successful. Those, exhorting to judge universities on the number of the graduates working according to their profession, should think over how many smart and eminent people work according to their occupation at all. By and large, we can find hardly anyone.)
Considering science, Forbes magazine has revealed a significant gap, regarding disrespect towards intellectual property. The need to legally defend an invention is declining, since the importance of patents is no longer sustained, and the system of patent defense is not working at all. On top of that, the number of patents issued is far more than the amount of sound ideas left. Although several world companies have found the way to fight patent devaluation, still, it is all very challenging. For instance, Apple Corporation is waiting for the near future without patenting. Company’s main assets denote hundreds of thousands of outside developers, a retail network, and long-term agreements with suppliers, which are paid for the building of plants by the company itself (last year the Corporation spent $3.9 billion on investments for suppliers). Competitors are still unable to reproduce iPhone, because only screen manufacturers are bound by contract with Apple for years ahead.
The field of scientific activities is facing the problems of lack of creative thinking and motivation up to this time.
Ukrainian economy’s unfavourable conditions have much to do with so-called transitional state of economy and divergent nature of Ukrainian reforms. Obviously, Ukraine has to re-comprehend the previous scientific activities and focus on world experience or innovations. Modern economy needs alteration concerning understanding and determining the directions of economic development. Moreover, we must necessarily pay attention to the fact that only those countries, that first of all make use of knowledge and human intelligence, and later implement these factors in their economic models, may be called prosperous.
1. Всемирная декларация о высшем образовании для ХХЫ века: подходи и практические меры//Дистанционное образование. – 1999, №4. – С.4
2. «Час змін» Жовтень 2010
3. «Forbes», Липень 2011
4. «Forbes», Серпень 2011
5. Assist. L.I.Ischuk . Lutsk state technical university – The essence of high education and it place in the modern economical system.
6. М.Паладій. Інноваційний шлях розвитку українського суспільства потребує нової економічної стратегії. http:/patent.km./ukr/.