Scientific Adviser – Iliuk T.I.,
Chernivtsi Trade and Economics Institute of KNTEU, Chernivtsi
SPECIAL MEALS FOR PEOPLE WITH INTENSIVE PHYSICAL EXERCISES
Sound nutrition suggests the adherence of the energy balance in the organism according to the following principle: the amount of received energy must correspond to the amount of consumed energy.
The energy comes in the human organism from food in the form of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Energy is used in the cells of the organism in the process of their chemical transformations for different needs. 4 kcal (17 kJ) of energy are known to be secreted under the oxidation process of 1 g of carbohydrates as well as proteins. 9 kcal (37 kJ) of energy are known to be secreted under the oxidation process of 1 g of fats. Knowing the chemical content of food products and their calorie information listed in special tables, one can calculate the calorie content of any dish or product .
Daily human diet caloricity varies depending on the amount of energy spent by a person. An organism spends reserve nutrients, mainly fats and complex carbohydrates under short-term deficiency of energy (caloric intake). And when organism absorbs not only fats and carbohydrates but also proteins under long-term deficiency of energy, it leads to weight loss, muscle atrophy, anemia, delayed growth, reduction of physical performance. With excess energy intake decreases its utilization, so the part of carbohydrates and fats is accumulated in the tissues as fat which can lead to obesity.
Daily energy consumption of the human organism includes basal metabolic rate (the minimum amount of energy needed to maintain the basic functions of the organism and processes of biosynthesis in a state of relative calm), specific and dynamic action of food, or energy consumption on digestion, absorption of food (at mixed diet – on the average 10-15% of daily energy expenditure) and energy consumption for different activities[1, P.15-21].
Nutrients play an important role in the organisms of athletes during their trainings and improve the results of their activities [2, P.43].
Another feature of nutrition for those who go in for sports is the need to include foods that have a high rate of absorption in the menu. For example, honey is a very useful diet product during sports training. It is a source of easily digestible carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
Design and using of the standards of the essential nutrients and energy source for athletes are based on the following principles :
- compliance of calorie food diet to daily energy expenditure;
- compliance of the chemical content, caloric intake and volume to growing needs and characteristics of the organism according to sports and periods of study;
- a balanced ratio of the nutrients in the diet;
- using a wide range of nutritional products with the mandatory inclusion of vegetables, fruits, juices, greens;
- adherence to the optimal diet.
The main sources of energy in the tissues of the organism are carbohydrates and fats. Fats also serve as construction material. Proteins can be used as an energy source, but their main function is to build. Vitamins are a part of many enzymes and they are also regulators of various metabolic processes. Minerals perform its regulatory role and they are included in the structure of various tissues, especially bone and blood. Water creates an internal environment and provides chemical reactions .
The human organism is able to synthesize and store a lot of nutrients, but some of them are not synthesized in it . They are called essential food factors and must come from food. Many metabolic processes and the processes of adaptation during muscular activity are violated in the case of the nutrients’ deficiency.
Well-organized nutrition diet during sports training reduces the risk of propensity of many diseases, provides high performance and promotes recovery.
1. Смоляр В.І. Еволюція європейського харчування / В.І. Смоляр // Проблеми харчування. – 2004. - №1. – С.15-21.
2. Зудилина Д.С. и др. Актуальные вопросы разработки технологий производства пищевых продуктов для питания спортсменов // Сборник материалов Юбилейной Х научно-практической конференции с международным участием «Технологии и продукты здорового питания. Функциональные пищевые продукты». – М. 2012. – С.43.
3. Пшендин А.И. Рациональное питание спортсменов / А.И. Пшендин. – СПб.: Олимп-СПб, 2003. – 160с.
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