Kratyuk Diana -
3 - year student
Scientific advisor -
INTERNATIONAL TOURISM: TENDENCIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MODERN STATE
Image of the country and its role in the international trade is mainly defined by the state and competitiveness level of the international tourism sphere. International tourism has become the branch, the role of which has considerably increased due to the swift development in the international trade. Tourism has become the main industrial branch in some countries that determined the dependence of its economic position from international tourism.
The latest research analyses and publications in the sphere of tourism showed the high interest of the world scientists from different countries to this problem. In particular, such Ukrainian scientists as M.P. Aphanasiev, O.O. Lyubitzeva, V.F. Kyfyak, I.Yu. Mal’s’ka, I.G. Smirnov, L.M. Ustymenko, V.V. Khudo studied that problem.
The purpose of the article consists in the modern tendencies research of the international tourism development.
The subject of the research is international tourism.
The object of the research is tendencies of the international tourism development.
Nowadays, tourism is determined as a phenomenon of the XXI century, which has become an integral component of most people in the world and has become one of the leading socio-economic activity directions. The dynamics of the world tourist flows, during the latest years (4-5% increasing a year), shows the globality of tourism and priority in the world economy, the income from tourism, which constitutes 6, 5% of the world export and 18% of the world trade services .
In the result of the growing visitors amount, the budget of most countries has considerable increased, due to money receipts. Last year, the highest index was registered in Turkey (+25%), in Ukraine (+24, 9%), in Bulgaria (+23, 8%), in Russia (+21, 7%), and in Latvia (+20, 3%). This process is accompanied by the noticeable money spending growth of tourists from many European countries. The growing expenses are registered (mostly of foreign tourists) in Croatia (+33, 3%), in Lithuania (+32, 1%), in Ukraine (+27, 6%) and on Cyprus (+27, 2%); the least percent presents tourists from the most important markets: Norway (+17, 7%), Sweden (+13, 6%), France (+11, 5%), and Holland (+7, 4%) .
An uneven development of the international tourism in the world countries is observed on the whole. As it was mentioned above, the part of tourism in GDP is fluctuating from 1% in the countries with highly developed and diversified economy, to 10% in the countries with the relatively high tourism sector (Germany -0,9%, USA – 1%, Great Britain – 1,9%, Spain – 4,2%, Austria – 8,9%). However, this index exceeds mean values in most small and developing countries, and in some island states tourism provides more than 50% of GDP: Antigua -58%, Bahamian islands – 35%. Such too high part of the receipts in GDP testifies to the impressionability of local economies in case of the world economic situation changes .
Nowadays, financial crisis in 2007-2008 years in Europe can be compared with the post war times in 1945-1947. Many developed European countries (e.g. Switzerland, Austria, and France) had built their considerable part of welfare using profits from tourism. Export revenues from international (entry) tourism played a great role in the post war economic revival of European countries [3, c.139].
Today, international tourism revenues in Spain exceed costs almost 7 times, in Turkey – 6 times, in Portugal – 4,8 times and in Greece – 3,5 times.
Tourism is one of the world economy branches where the number of work places (jobs) is constantly growing and exceeds 1, 5 times the medium industry index in other spheres of economic activity. Jobs and tourism enterprises are usually created in the less developed regions of home countries and this promotes the improving of economic situation and encourages local population not to leave their traditional dwelling places in searching more economic attractive places of residence. Rural and the so called green tourism is actively developing and it is considered, in the European countries, to be the most effective way of the rural depressive regions social development, the way to the local population employment providing which is being displaced from the sphere of the material production because of the scientific-technical progress.
According to the data of the World Tourism Organization, almost 85, 0 mln. people worked directly in the sphere of traveling and tourism in 2008; 3,2 % were engaged in the world economy and 273, 0 mln. people worked in the related to the tourism industries (8,3 % of the Earth workable population). China, India, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Brazil, Russia, Germany, Spain and France are leading employment countries. It is expected that employment in the mentioned world economic spheres will reach 8, 6% of the world able-bodied population by 2014[4, c.139].
In 2008 the growth of international tourists number was 2% or 18, 0 mln. people, and it is more than in 2007. The gross product volume from the international tourism in 2008 was 944, 0 bln. of U.S. dollars (642, 0 bln. of euros), or 30% of the world export services volume .
The tourism industry in the European countries gives more than 10% of the gross product, and in some particular countries of Asia and Middle East – approximately 50%.
By 2020 the number of tours, according to the specialists of UNWTO, will increase 3 times compared with the present period. The expansion of rural, green (ecological), and also extreme tourism (sport, mountain, underwater, hunting) along with the traditional kinds of tourism (automobile, cultural, health spa, religious) gives the possibility to attract considerable financial investments to the ecologically clean regions – as a rule to the agricultural and depressive territories, which hadn’t been affected by the urban civilization.
The world tourism organization specialists determined five most perspective kinds of the XXI century tourism:
1. Cruise – one of the most perspective and rapidly growing kinds of tourism. The amount of ”cruise” tourists was 1, 5 mln. people at the beginning of 1980 but today it is 10 mln., and the number is constantly growing.
2. Adventure tourism is for those who like risks and adrenaline. The demand on mountain climbing to the highest world picks and underwater excursions is continuously increasing.
3. Cultural-cognitive tourism will actively develop in Europe, Asia, Middle East and correspondingly the protection of cultural monuments will be covered too.
4. Business tourism has become well developed and will develop in future so this is connected with the quick tempo of the world economy development, deepening of the political and economic contacts between different word states.
5. Space tourism will provide the annual revenue in the amount of 10 bln. US dollars, by the American specialist’s data [2, c.93].
Modern tendencies of the international tourism have positive characteristics. Analyzed data indicate that the economic tourism industry is actively being developed: in particular, new jobs in the sphere of tourism are being created, the amount of revenues from tourism are growing too. However, there are some industrial problems solving of which will accelerate the development of such tourism spheres as:
- the absence of the information-advertising software diversified system of the industrial activity and tourism agencies abroad;
- the absence of the civilized conditions during going through customs and unfavourable visa regime for foreign tourists;
- tax legislation, that doesn’t promote investments in the tourism infrastructure and health spa complex;
- disadvantages in the regional management system;
- the shadow economy problem [3, c.141].
Since international tourism can be considered to be an independent economic activity and an intersectoral complex. Fluctuations of tourists’ revenues, by all means, will lead to the adequate changes in revenues, in the manufacturing sector of the economy, employment etc. Hence, the indirect influence is determined by the economic activity generating of the contiguous economic industries by the way of consistent stages of the tourism expenses using.
Positive influence of international tourism is determined by its economic functions, namely: creation of the revenue, generating of economic manufacturing industries, stabilization of the balance of payment, increasing of the population employment through the creation of new jobs. Indexes of foreign economic effectiveness in the sphere of international tourism depend on the level of the tourism industry development, on the using of the domestic tourism market in full, on the stability of political and economic position in the country.
Predictions of UNWTO as to the increasing of tourists’ flows have to become the incentive to the improving of the tourism policy in order to overcome negative economic influence of international tourism.
A list of literature:
1. Press-release. The growth of European tourism outperformed all expectations [Electronic resource]. Access regime: http:\\ media.unwto.org\ru\press-release\2011-11-28\rost-evropeiskogo-turizma-prevzoshel-ozhidanija.
2. Rynejs’ka L.S. Tourism as perspective industry of modern international business\\ World economy and international economic relations.-2009.-№1.-с.90-93.
3. Smal’ I.V. Global and regional vectors of tourism development\\Geography in information society.-2008.-T.4.-c.139-141.
4. Fedulova L.I. Innovative contours of tourism development\\Actual economic problems.-2009.-№6.-с.137-147.