2nd -year student, majoring in Tourism
Supervisor: Gildebrant K.Y.
Chernivtsi Institute of Trade and Economics,
NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
The development of tourism industry has many positive and negative advantages. One of the negative advantages is the impact of tourism on the ecological environment. Nowadays, the tourist industry is regarded as one of the main sources of replenishment of state and local budgets. And the environment takes a back seat. However environmental damage from tourism is enormous. In this article we’ll try to focus on some of the most drastic influences.
First of all it should be noted that tourism industry impacts water quality through construction and maintenance of tourist infrastructure, recreational boating, and certain activities of the cruise industry thus causing pressure on existing sewage treatment plants and leading to overflows during peak tourist times.
The most significant problem from the standpoint of human health associated with recreational boating and water quality is the discharge of sewage into waterbodies near the location of shellfish beds. Diseases that can be potentially transmitted through human contact with fecal discharge or ingestion of contaminated shellfish include typhoid fever, dysentery, infectious hepatitis, and nonspecific gastroenteritis.
Besides it is necessary to say that tourism activity leads to considerable increases in air pollution. Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. As most tourism-related air pollution comes from automobiles, which emit by far the most carbon monoxide of all transportation modes, air contamination from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level. These transport emissions are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemical pollution. For example, especially in very hot or cold countries, tour buses often leave their motors running for hours while the tourists go out for an excursion because they want to return to a comfortably air-conditioned bus.
Noise pollution from airplanes, cars, and buses, as well as recreational vehicles such as snowmobiles and jet skis, is an ever-growing problem of modern life. In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas.
Influences on wildlife are also huge as flora and fauna can be unfavorably affected by the construction and maintenance of tourist infrastructure, and by tourist activities. The two primary ways in which tourist activities disturb wildlife are by altering their eating habits and feeding patterns, and by altering their habitat. Feeding patterns are altered directly by tourists feeding animals, and indirectly by littering, which encourages wildlife to scrounge for food. Wildlife habitat is altered by tourists’ trampling and by the use of off-road vehicles.
Tourism development can even create “architectural”, “visual” or “aesthetic” pollution by constant construction of tourism related facilities and complexes as often fails to integrate its structures with the natural features and indigenous architecture of the destination. For instance, large, dominating resorts of different design can look out of place in any natural environment. This problem can be overcome if careful planning with host community full involvement is undertaken in an area.
However, some of the negative factors may take some time to become apparent in the community so planners need to research tourist development and its effects to try and prevent problems arising. One may say that economic benefits of tourism partially balance its negative environmental impacts, but only if considerable financial investment by both public and private sectors are spent to fight existing or potential environmental damage. This must be done not only because we all depend on our environment, but also because tourism itself more than any other sector of the economy rests on attractive setting and location.
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