Zoryana Batovs’ka -
Scientific adviser -
FOOD FORTIFICATION PROBLEM AND ITS CONTROL
At the present stage of civilization, providing people with caloric, fortified, enriched and available food is especially of great importance. People have to consume high quality products as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and all necessary vitamins and minerals to maintain their health at the appropriate level. Nowadays, the food industry is very intensive, in terms of fortification of its products, which consists of tens of thousands range.
Meals, from the birth to the last day of life, affect the human body. Ingredients of nutrients get into the body with food and are converted to the structural elements of cells in the process of metabolism, as a result of complex biochemical changes. This process provides our body with plastic material and energy, creates the necessary physiological and mental efficiency, determines the health, activity and life expectancy, its ability to reproduce. Nutritional status is one of the most important factors determining the health of the nation.
In the last decade, a tendency to a sharp health deterioration of the Ukrainian population is observed; that is long decline of the life expectancy, increasing of the overall human infection, the deterioration of health indicators and the anthropometric characteristics of children, teenagers, and the elderly. The preferred place among the causes of morbidity and mortality takes cardiovascular and cancer diseases, the development of which is related, in some extent, to food. One of the major reasons of this condition is unsatisfactory nutrition. By the information and data of the Institute of Nutrition, in most cases, the poor and unsatisfactory nutrition of the population is due to the lack of vitamins, macro and microelements in their food [1, 2].
People have to get antioxidant group of vitamins, especially vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in large volume. The water-soluble vitamin C fights free radicals in the areas of the body that contain water. Vitamin E protects lipids in the blood stream, where is the high level of oxygen. Vitamin A and selenium are required in those tissues where the oxygen level is low. Vitamin C restores Vitamin E, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme restores vitamin C. Thus, the vitamins of the antioxidant group are harmoniously interrelated.
Vitamin C is one of the most safe and effective nutrients according to the data of experts [3, 4]. The advantage of vitamin C is the protection from immunodeficiency, cardiovascular diseases, maternity health problems, eye diseases and even skin wrinkling. It participates in redox processes and in tissue respiration, improves the exchange of amino acids and carbohydrates, provides proline oxidation in hydroksyprolin and collagen protein, which strengthens the gum, the blood vessels walls, bone tissue, which promotes wound healing. Also this vitamin affects the activity of the liver, central nervous system, endocrine glands (especially the thyroid and adrenal glands), is involved in iron metabolism and cholesterol, normalizes blood sanguification, improves the exchange of many vitamins in the body, and increases the resistance of the organism to infection, intoxication, overheating, hypothermia, oxygen starvation. Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants that can protect against damage caused by dangerous particles called free radicals and toxic chemicals and pollutants like cigarette smoke. Free radicals can accumulate and make a destructive contribution to the development of such dangerous diseases as cancer and cardiovascular. The long lasting vitamin C deficiency in food (3-6 months) leads to the development of scurvy. Its main symptoms are dysfunction of the central nervous system, lesion of joints, bleeding gums, loosening and loss of teeth, hemorrhages in the skin, weight loss, reduced resistance to catarrhal diseases and decreased efficiency.
The procedure of express control development of the vitamin C content, by the photometric method in different food products is considered in the given article. The bottom line of the method is the quantitative determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The photometric mode method is based on the use of reagent Folina (molybdenumphosphorus reagent) which is recovered to molybdenum blue in the interaction with ascorbic acid. The color intensity depends on the concentration of deoxidizer. The phonometic ascorbic acid determination methods in juices were developed by the reaction with molybdenumphosphorus acid. Experiments were conducted with the help of the photometer KPK-3. The dynamics of the content change in Vitamin C, depending on conditions and period of the fruit storage is considered in the article.
The objects of the research were varieties of pepper, apple and fruit juices. First, the schedule is built by the obtained data and by the standard of ascorbic acid solutions, and then the juice of the investigated product is researched with the help of KPK-3 at a wavelength of 585 nm. The content of ascorbic acid is calculated by the following equation:
Q = q * 1000/20 * 1000 = q/20,
where q – is found by the graduating (scaling) schedule of ascorbic acid mh/20 ml, 20 – the volume of studied ml juice.
Slicing vegetables and fruits results the increasing of the soluble substances diffusion. The concentration of vitamin C in sliced pieces is being decreased, which destroys vitamin C more than in whole vegetables. (In this case, the vitamin activity of potatoes is being decreased by 40%).
Depending on the technological process conditions  the number of vitamins in food, in some way, decreases. Easy ascorbic acid oxidation and disorder in cooking technology may lead to the complete destruction of ascorbic acid in the cooked dish. When you save the finished dishes in hot, vitamin C is quickly destroyed. On average, about 30% of vitamin C initial amount is left after the culinary food processing..
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is easily destroyed during cooking, especially in an alkaline environment. When cooking potatoes the losses of vitamin C is about 30%, cabbage - 40%, while stewing cabbage it is about 66%. The degree of vitamin C destruction during cooking and stewing depends  on many factors: the content of ascorbic acid in vegetables, heating rate, the duration of heat, shelf life of cooked vegetables, the presence of different substances that speed up or slow down the destruction, the reaction of the environment.
A list of literature:
1. Chemical composition of Russian food products. The Directory. M.: Edicted by V.A,Tutelyan. 2002, 236 p.
2. Chemical composition of food products. The Directory. Part 2. M.: Mir, 1987.
3. Nechaev A.P., Traubenberg S.E., Kochetkova A.A. and others. Food chemistry. Edicted by A.P. Nechaev. 4-th ed., corr. and allowed.- SPb.: GIRD, 2007.-640 p.
4. Mitsyk V.E., Nevolnychenko A.F. Rational nutrition and food products.-K.: Urozhai, 1994.-332 p.
5. Galunova N.E. Collection of recipes and culinary products for the public catering enterprises., Profi KS, 2003. -408 p.
6. Furs I.N. Public catering production technology. M.: Novoe znanie, 2002. -798 p.